Malignant Mesothelioma | Causes, Symptoms,Chemotherapy|| mesothelioma cancer lawsuit

Malignant Mesothelioma | Causes, Symptoms, Chemotherapy

Malignant Mesothelioma, more clearly malignant Mesothelioma, is a rare type of cancer, which arises from the protective layer covering the many internal organs of the body, the mesothelioma. Usually, this disease is caused by exposure to asbestos.

Plura (the exterior of the internal part of the lungs and chest) is the most common place for this disease, but it is also in the peritoneum, the heart, the pericardium, or the tunica vaginalis. Might be possible.

Most of the people suffering from mesothelioma were either working in areas where asbestos and glass particles entered their body during respiration or they came in contact with asbestos particles and fibers in other ways. It has also been expressed that the washing of a family member working with asbestos or glass can also cause the risk of developing mesothelioma in a person.

Unlike lung cancer, there is no connection between mesothelioma and smoking, but the risk of asbestos-induced other cancers increases greatly due to smoking. People who have been exposed to asbestos often have been taking the help of lawyers to get compensation for asbestos-related illnesses, including mesothelioma. The compensation received Malignant Mesothelioma, more clearly malignant Mesothelioma, is a rare type of cancer, which arises from the protective layer covering the many internal (see asbestos and law).

Symptoms of mesothelioma include pleural leakage (fluid between the lungs and chest wall) or pain in the chest due to shortness of breath and general symptoms, such as weight loss. Its diagnosis can be estimated by chest x-ray and CT scan, and it can be confirmed by biopsy (samples of tissues) and microscopic test.

Thoracoscopy (chemically inserting a tube on the chest) can be used to take a biopsy. It also allows the use of substances such as talc to wipe the pleural part (which is called pleurodesis), to prevent further fluid accumulation and pressure on the lungs.

Despite the treatment done by chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and sometimes surgery, diagnosis of this disease can be very rare. Research is ongoing for screening tests for early detection of mesothelioma

Signs and symptoms

It is possible that signs and symptoms of mesothelioma may not appear for 20 to 50 years even after exposure to asbestos. Problems in breathing, cough and chest pain are often symptoms of pleural mesothelioma due to the accumulation of fluid in the pleural space (pleural rigs).

Symptoms of peritoneal mesothelioma include weight loss and inflammation and pain in the stomach caused by weight loss and cachexia, drowsiness (a fluid formed in the stomach). Other symptoms of peritoneal mesothelioma may include obstruction of intestines, problems in blood clotting, anemia, and fever. If cancer has spread beyond the mesothelium to other parts of the body, then its symptoms may include pain, swallowing, swelling on the neck or face.

These symptoms may have arisen due to mesothelioma or other, less severe conditions.

Mesothelioma that affects the pleura can cause these signs and symptoms:

  • Chest pain
  • Lungs from the lungs, or solidification of fluid around the lungs
  • Shortness of breath
  • Fatigue or anemia
  • Wheezing, hoarseness, or cough
  • Blood in the sputum (fluid) coming out of cough (hemoptysis)
  • In severe cases, the tumor may also occur in a person's body. The situation may also arise in the person to stop work by pneumothorax, or lungs. The disease can increase and spread to other parts of the body.

Tumors affecting the stomach normally do not cause any symptoms until they reach the very later stage. Symptoms include:

  1. stomach pain
  2. Abnormal congestion of fluid in the abdomen
  3. Stomach ache
  4. Problems with intestinal functions
  5. Weight loss

In severe cases of the disease, the following signs and symptoms may exist:

  • Blood clots in the veins, which can cause thrombophlebitis
  • Disinfected intravascular coagulation, a problem that causes severe bleeding in many organs of the body
  • Jaundice, or yellowing in eyes and skin
  • A decrease in blood glucose levels
  • Leakage in the lungs
  • Blood clotting in the pulmonary emboli, or lung arteries
  • Severe ascites


Working with asbestos is a major risk factor for mesothelioma.  In the United States, asbestos is the leading cause of malignant mesothelioma and is considered to be associated with the development of mesothelioma in "indisputable" form. In fact, the relationship between asbestos and mesothelioma is so deep that many people consider mesothelioma as a "signal" or "watching" tumor. In most cases, the history of contact with asbestos is found. 

However, some people have been reported to have mesothelioma without any known contact with asbestos. In rare cases, mesothelioma has also been seen by connecting radiation therapy, intrapleural thorium dioxide (Thorotrast) and other fibrous silicates, such as Aronitis. Some studies show that Symposium Virus SV40 may be working as a helpful factor in the development of mesothelioma.

Asbestos was also known in ancient times, but it was not extracted from mines until the nineteenth century and commercially it was not used extensively. Its use increased greatly during World War II. Since the beginning of the 1940s, millions of American laborers had been exposed to asbestos particles. Initially, the information about the risks of exposure to asbestos was not available publicly. However, later it was found that the risk of developing mesothelioma in shipbuilding factories, people working in asbestos mines and mills, growers of asbestos products, workers of the heating and construction industries and other business people are very much involved. 

Today the official approach of the United States's Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OHA [OSHA]) and the EPA of the United States is that the safety criteria and "permissible contact limitations" required by US laws, although asbestos- Most of the non-incurable diseases are adequate to prevent, but still they may cause asbestos-related cancers, such as mesothelioma, To prevent or are not enough to get her to provide copy protection.

 Similarly, the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) of the British Government has formally said that any limit for mesothelioma should be very low and it is widely accepted that if there is no such limit Even present, it can not be quantified at present even then. So for practical purposes, HSE assumes that no "safe" range exists. 

Other people have also found that there is no evidence of the presence of such a border under which there is no risk of mesothelioma. It appears that there is a linear relationship between the drug dose and its reaction, according to which increasing the dose of the disease increases the disease. Nonetheless, mesothelioma can be linked to asbestos, brief, low-level or indirect contact. It appears that the amount of dosage required for the effect is lower for asbestos-induced mesothelioma than pulmonary asbestosis or lung cancer. There is no safe level to contact asbestos again because it is related to increased risk of mesothelioma.

 The period of exposure to asbestos can be shortened to produce mesothelioma. For example, cases of mesothelioma arising in 1-3 months of contact have been documented. People working with asbestos wear personal protective equipment to do the risk associated with this contact.

The length of latency, from the first contact to the emergence of the disease, is longer in the case of mesothelioma. It is almost never less than fifteen years, while its maximum level is 30-40 years. In a review of the cases of mesothelioma related to the business, the mean period of the latency period was 32 years. Depending on the data obtained from Peto et al, the risk of mesothelioma appears to increase from the first contact to the third or fourth power.

Ambient contact

It has been found that cases of mesothelioma are seen in people living near those places where asbestos is found naturally. For example, in the central Cappadocia, Turkey, 50% of all the deaths in three small villages-Tuzköy, Karain and Sarıhıdır-were due to mesothelioma. Initially, a hydroxide mineral with symptoms such as aeronaut, asbestos, was considered to be the cause, although, in recent pandemic detailed tests, it was found that aeronautics mostly causes mesothelioma in those families, which have a genetic tendency.  Due to the presence of asbestos fibers in the supply of water and food items, in the long run, and yet these concerns have increased concerns about the possible effects of the unknown on the unknown population.


Contact with asbestos fibers has been recognized as a business health risk since the beginning of the twentieth century. Many pandemic-related studies have linked the commercial contact of asbestos to lung plaque, lung transplantation, asbestosis, lungs and laryngeal cancer, gastrointestinal tumor and lung cavity and malignant mesothelioma of the peritoneum. Asbestos has been used extensively in many industrial products, including cement brake lining, gasket, roof frames, floor related products, textile, and insulation.

Commercial excavation of asbestos occurred between 1945 and 1966 in the White norm, Western Australia. According to a collective study of mining personnel working in the mine, however, after contact with crocidolite, no one died in the first 10 years, but in 1985 there were 80 deaths, which could be seen by connecting to mesothelioma. By 1994, 539 deaths were reported from mesothelioma in Western Australia.

Paraprofessional secondary contact

The risk of mesothelioma and possibly other asbestos-related diseases is also increased in the family of asbestos workers and others living with them. [20] [21] This risk increases asbestos workers' clothing and hair, and they come home with asbestos Dust could be the result. In order to reduce the likelihood of exposure of asbestos fibers to family members, it is often necessary for asbestos workers to take bath and change clothes before leaving their workplace.

Asbestos in buildings

There may be asbestos in many building materials used in both public and private premises before banning asbestos. People doing repair work or DIY activities may be exposed to asbestos. In the UK, the use of chrysotile asbestos was banned at the end of 1999. Brown and blue asbestos were banned in the UK in the year 1985. Build or renovated buildings before these dates may contain asbestos contents.


CXR showing mesothelioma

The CT scan of a patient with mesothelioma, the coronal section (the section which is the front and half part of the body in front of a split). Mesothelioma is concentrated with yellow arrows, central lung drift (liquid collection) is marked with a yellow star. Red number: (1) right lung, (2) spinal cord, (3) left lung, (4) ribs, (5) spleen descending part of the aorta, (6) spleen, (7) left kidney, (8 ) Right kidney, (9) liver.

Micrograph of the whispering fluid cytopathology sample while performing mesothelioma

Micrograph showing the mesothelioma in core biopsy
It is often difficult to diagnose mesothelioma because its symptoms are similar to the symptoms of many other diseases. The diagnosis begins with a review of the patient's medical history. The history of exposure to asbestos can increase medical apprehension for mesothelioma.

 A physical examination is done, followed by chest x-ray and often lung function tests. X-ray can give information on the thickness of the lung cover, which is usually seen after exposure to asbestos and increases the risk of mesothelioma.

Usually, a CT (or cat [CAT]) scan or an MRI test is done. If there is a large amount of fluid, then abnormal cells can be identified by cytopathology if this fluid is pulled with the help of a syringe.

For the fluid, this work is called thoracostomy (by putting the hose in the chest); Paracentesis or ascorbic exhaust pipe for ascites; And pericardiocentesis [disambiguation needed] is done by pericardiocentesis for flow. 

Although the absence of lethal cells in cytology does not completely eliminate mesothelioma, this makes it very much more likely, especially if an alternative diagnosis is made (eg, stomach, heart failure). Unfortunately, this diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma is difficult to do by cytology alone, even by specialist pathologists.

Generally, a biopsy is necessary to confirm the diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma. Doctors take a sample of tissue, which is tested by the pathologist with the help of a microscope. A biopsy can be done in a variety of ways, depending on where the abnormal area is located in the body. If the cancer is in the chest, the therapist can do thoracoscopy.

 In this method, the physician puts a small incision in the chest wall and puts a thin, published tube in the chest between the two ribs, which is called thoracoscope. Through thoracoscopy, the physician sees within the chest and receives samples of tissues. Alternatively, Chest Surgeon can open the chest directly (thoracotomy). If the cancer is in the stomach, the doctor can do a laparoscopy.

To get the tissue for testing, the doctor puts a small incision in the stomach and puts a special device in the abdomen. If these methods do not provide adequate tissue, then more extensive diagnostic surgery may be required.

Immunohistochemological studies play an important role in helping pathologists to detect dependent mesothelioma different from neoplastic mimics. Many tests and panels are available. None of the tests is suitable for separating mesothelioma from carcinoma or even to be able to identify harmonious versus malignant.


Chemotherapy is the only surgery for mesothelioma, which has proven to increase survival in uncontrolled and controlled trials. In a historical study published by Vogelzang and his colleagues in 2003, the singular cisplatin chemotherapy was compared to those with the combination of Cisplatin and pemetrexed (brand name Alimta) chemotherapy, those patients who did not have Chemotherapy for previously malignant pleural mesothelioma. And was not a candidate for more aggressive "therapeutic" surgery.

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This test was the first report of survival benefit from chemotherapy in malignant pleural mesothelioma, which showed that the patients whose treatment was treated with only Cisplatin had a mean of 10 months of survival, while the group of patients treated with Cisplatin And pemetrexed and those given extra nutrition through folate and vitamin B12, 13.3 Weeks was. Most of the patients were given extra nutritional vitamins in the test and patients who received a dose of 500mcg of Follett 500mcg daily and intramuscular Vitamin B12 1000mcg dose in every 9-week interval, the side effects associated with pemetrexed were much less compared to those patients. Were given without the supplementary nutrition of peppery-rich vitamins.

Target response rate increased from 20% in the Szppatin group to 40% in the combined pemetrexed group. Some side effects, such as nausea and vomiting, mumps and diarrhea were more common in the combined pemetrexed group, but they affected only a small group of patients, and overall the combination of vitamins also provided nutritional supplementation of pemetrexed and cisplatin Suitable for patients; Both the quality of life and the performance of lung functionalities increased in the connective pemetrexed group.

In February 2004, the United States Food and Drug Administration approved the use of pemetrexed for the treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma. However, some questions are still unanswered regarding the optimum use of chemotherapy, in which the right time to start treatment and the optimal number of cycles given.

Cisplatin's experiment with Raltitrexed has shown similar improvement in survival, as seen by the combination of Cisplatin A Pemetrexed, but Raltitrexed is no longer commercially available for this signal.

 For patients who can not afford pemetrexed, the combination of cystatin with gemcitabine or vinorelbine or only vinorelbine is an option, although no survival benefit has been shown for these drugs. In patients with whom Cisplatin cannot be used, carboplatin can be used instead, but non-random data displays high rates of hematology related toxicity and low reaction rates for carboplatin-based combinations, although, In this, survival figures are similar to patients receiving cisplatin. 

In January 2009, after the United States FDA conducted radiation for mesothelioma of phase I or II, a study conducted at the national level by Duke University, according to which a 50-point increase in the correction was concluded. The use of traditional treatments like chemotherapy allowed.

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